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Eastern Woodland Farmers
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The Eastern Woodland Farmers inhabited the shores of the Great Lakes to the St. Lawrence River,
and up towards Georgian Bay, in Southwestern and South-Central Ontario.
Transportation
The Eastern Woodland Farmers traveled mainly by foot or canoe
Showshoes
Huron Snowshoes
  • Snowshoes worn during winter allowed clan members to walk swiftly across the snow without sinking.
  • They were made from tree boughs bent into frames and laced with animal sinew.
  • These snow shoes made it easy to walk on top of snow that could be two or three feet deep. This way hunters could easily catch up to a moose or deer that was floundering helplessly in the deep snow.
Canoes
Elm-Bark Canoe
  • The canoe were made from elm bark, a common wood, or birch bark, which was lighter and faster.
  • Size of canoe varied between 3 m and 8 m.
  • Bark stripped in late spring was soaked in steaming water.
  • The bendable bark was then placed over a frame, sewn together using a large bone needle and basswood or dogbane cord (thin strips of inner cedar bark or black spruce roots) as thread.
  • Then the canoe was painted with pine gum, making it watertight.
Seasonal Migration / Adaptation

Iroquois Women Working
  • Clans built villages lasting up to 30 years.
  • When soil of nearby farming field degraded, villages moved locations.
  • While women stayed in the village year round, men went hunting and trapping during the winters.
Groups in
this Region
Environment / Housing Food
/ Tools
Religion / Ceremonies / Art / Clothing Family / Social Structure / Leadership Tribal Relations / War
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