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Teacher's Guide Questions
Contact, Trade
and Alliances
The Beginnings
of the Fur Trade
The Hudson's Bay Company
& the North West Company
Opening
The West
Contact, Trade and Alliances
between First Nations and Europeans
Questions from the Text
  1. ______________ meaning 'little spirit seeds, gift of the Manido' was a name given to beads by the Anishabe people.
  2. New France’s territory extended down the St. Lawrence River, into the ______________, and along the ______________ river.
  3. ______________ tea was given to settlers by the natives as a cure for scurvy.
  4. There were ______________ colonies in North America established by the British, that eventually became the United States.
  5. ______________ was a disease that killed about three-quarters the population of MicMacs.
Questions for Further Thought
  1. When the First Nations people first met European settlers, what do you think they thought of these new people who looked, dressed and communicated differently? What would you have thought?
  2. When setting up a new colony, what are some things to consider?  What is the basis for a good government?
  3. The First Nations helped save many European lives by introducing them to natural remedies available in the New World.  Why is it important to listen to other cultures who may be different from your own?  Give some examples today of things in Canadian society that originated from other cultures.
Group Activity
  1. Interview someone who immigrated to a new country. Ask them about what changes they had to make when they moved here, what traditions they brought with them, and what they learned from the new society. Write a report.
The Beginnings of the Fur Trade
Questions from the Text
  1. The ___________ were the major native allies of the French.
  2. ___________, ___________, ___________, are towns where the Company of New France had forts.
  3. ______________________ means “runners in the woods.”
  4. ___________, ___________, ___________, are three styles of Beaver Hats.
  5. A ___________ was when a canoe was emptied and hauled over land.
  6. True or False: ‘Coureurs-de-Bois’ were the same as voyageurs.
  7. True or False: A blue capote was the name of a gun used in the fur trade industry.
  8. True or False: Many native were converted to Catholicism.
  9. True or False: Champlain arrived in Canada in 1547.
  10. True or False: Metis comes from a French word meaning mixed.
  11. When was the Company of New France created?
  12. Who were the enemies of the Iroquois?
  13. Who were the Coureurs-de-Bois?
  14. Describe a typical day for a voyageur.
  15. Why would a fur trapper take a native bride?
Questions for Further Thought
  1. Do you think the Coureur-de-Bois enjoyed their jobs?  Why, or why not? Explain.
  2. How could native relations help a fur trader?
  3. How do you think the establishment of the fur trade would change Canada?  Or would it not?  Explain.
Group Activity
  1. Write a story about a Coureur-de-Bois on an adventure to find furs. What happens to him? Draw a picture of this Coureur-de-Bois wearing typical fashion to go with the story.
The Hudson's Bay Company & the North West Company
Questions from the Text
  1. ______________ and ______________ were explorers who discovered that the Hudson’s Bay area was rich in furs.
  2. ______________ was the nickname given to children of Fur Traders and Cree Women.
  3. A ______________ system was used to grade Hudson’s Bay Blankets.
  4. ______________ was the first Hudson’s Bay Post on the Saskatchwan River.
  5. A ______________ could carry four tons of cargo, three times the amount of a canoe.
  6. True or False: The Hudson’s Bay Company was created in 1670.
  7. True or False: Hudson’s Bay Blankets were gifts from Chiefs, who made the blankets from materials bought at Hudson’s Bay stores, to visiting British dignitaries.
  8. True or False: Hudson’s Bay was named after Henry Hudson, the first governor general of Canada.
  9. True or False: Each spring, Coureurs-Des-Bois traveled to Montreal to trade their furs.
  10. True or False: The Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West Company had entirely different trade routes.
  11. Give some examples of Early ports.
  12. Did First Nations trappers like working for the Hudson’s Bay Company? Why, why not?
  13. What was the treaty of Ultrecht?
  14. Why were several fur trade posts seized and destroyed in the 1760s?
  15. What was the trade route of the North West Company?
Questions for Further Thought
  1. How did the introduction of York Boats change life for fur traders?
  2. Write a paragraph about the Hudson’s Bay Company and it’s role in Canadian identity.
  3. If you were trapping furs during a cold winter in Canada, what would you bring with you to survive?
Group Activity
  1. Act out a scene: The North West Company has just found out that the Hudson’s Bay Company is building a fort across the river.  Act out a confrontation between the two companies and discuss how any animosity can be resolved.
Opening the West
Questions from the Text
  1. ___________, ___________, ___________, ___________ are some of the buildings found at a trading post.
  2. ___________, and ___________ are two examples of Forts along the North Saskatchewan River.
  3. ___________ is another name for the Red River Settlement.
  4. Hardtack biscuits are made of ___________, water and ___________.
  5. Hudson’s Bay Company pemmican was 50 per cent meat and 50 per cent ___________.
  6. True or False: Emporium of the North was another name for Fort Athabasca.
  7. True or False: Alexander Mackenzie explored the Atlantic Ocean.
  8. True or False: Fort St. James was built in 1806.
  9. True or False: The Red River Cart was invented by the Orkneys.
  10. True or False: The Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West Company merged in 1821.
  11. Who was Peter Pond? What did he do?
  12. Who founded the Red River settlement?  Why did he do it?
  13. What were some of the staple foods of the fur trade?
  14. Why did the Battle of Seven Oaks happen?
  15. What was the Carleton Trail?
Questions for Further Thought
  1. How did the fur trade influence the exploration of Canada?
  2. Describe what you think life in the Red River Settlement would have been like.
  3. How did the fur trade change the economy of First Nations people?  List the benefits and the drawbacks of their new lifestyle.
Group Activity
  1. Make Hardtack Biscuits
    Recipe:
    5 Cups Flour (unbleached)
    1 Tablespoon Baking Powder
    1 Tablespoon Salt
    1-1/4 cups Water
    Preheated Oven to 450
    In a bowl, combine the ingredients to form a stiff, but not dry dough. The should be able to shape the dough easily, without it sticking to your hands.
    Take this mound of dough, flatten it out onto a greased cookie sheet (the ones with a small lip around the edge...like a real shallow pan...), and roll the dough into a flat sheet aprx. 1/2 inch thick.
    Using a breadknife, divide the dough into 3x3 squares. taking a 10-penny nail, put a 3x3 matrix of holes into the surface of the dough, all the way thru, at even intervals.
    Bake in the oven for aprx 20 Min., till lightly browned. Take out and let cool.
Contact, Trade
and Alliances
The Beginnings
of the Fur Trade
The Hudson's Bay Company
& the North West Company
Opening
The West
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